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Racking

 

Winemaking term for the process of separating a wine from its sediment, by moving the liquid from one container to another. Also used for aerating wine.

Rancio

 

The rather pungent smell of intentionally oxidised wines, such as wood-aged fortified wines and older vins doux naturels.

Reduced

 

A wine that has developed a dirty smell reminiscent of rotten eggs. Before bottling this can usually be remedied by aeration of addition of copper. When it develops in bottle, vigorous aeration sometimes removes the reduced smell.

Rendement (Fr.)

 

Yield.

Reserva (Sp.)

 

Reserve. Wine that has been aged for a minimum specified period (according to the DO) normally including a period in barrel. Many of the best red wines of Rioja are bottled as reserva, while the older gran reserva category can be rather too old for modern tastes.

Residual sugar

 

Sugar remaining in a wine after fermentation and once it is ready for bottling. The level of residual sugar determines whether the wine will be dry, medium dry, sweet, etc, though even the driest wines contain a little residual sugar.

Riddling

 

Winemaking term for the process of gradually turning and shaking bottle-fermented sparkling wine (such as Champagne) so that the sediment of dead yeast cells moves to the neck, for subsequent removal by disgorgement. Riddling can be done manually or using a machine (see 'gyropalette', 'girasol').

Riserva

 

Label term used in Italy to indicate a wine of superior quality which has normally also fulfilled a minimum ageing requirement.

Rotary fermenter

 

Rotating tank used for maceration of reds. Rotation is used instead of traditional pumping over and leads to quicker extraction of colour and fruit.

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