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Gelatine

 

Fining agent of animal (usually pig) origin, used to remove bitter tastes or the taste of rot.

Girasol (Sp.)

 

Machine used to reproduce the effect of riddling in the production of sparkling wines. Bottles held in a cage are gradually moved to the upright position, shaking the sediment of dead yeast cells into the neck. The girasol achieves this in a few days, compared with several weeks for manual riddling.

Gobelet (Fr.)

 

System for growing vines, in which the plant takes the form of a low bush without a supporting trellis. See bush vine.

Governo (It.)

 

Technique for producing Chianti, in which some grapes are reserved and dried, and then added to wine after the first alcoholic fermentation. A second fermentation then takes place, increasing alcohol content and colour. Now used only rarely.

Grafting

 

Technique of joining fruit-bearing vines (usually Vitis vinifera) to rootstocks, usually of other Vitis species. Since the outbreak of phylloxera in the nineteenth century, most of the world's vineyards have been planted with vinifera vines grafted onto rootstock of vines native to America, which are resistant to phylloxera. Different rootstocks are chosen to suit soil type and to manipulate yield and vigour.

Grand cru (class) (Fr.)

 

Literally '(classified) great growth'. The meaning varies by region. Within Bordeaux, grand cru class refers to the top estates of Medoc, Graves and Sauternes, and the top wines of St Emilion. In Burgundy and Chablis the very top vineyard sites are referred to as grands crus (which is a higher classification than premier cru). Alsace also has vineyards classified as grands crus (fairly recently), and in Champagne this designation is used for the most highly rated vineyard sites (and by extension the wines made exclusively from them).

Grand vin (Fr.)

 

Great wine. Meaningless on the label, as use of the term is not regulated. Nearly all Bordeaux is labelled Grand Vin de Bordeaux, whatever its quality. Properties producing a second vin often refer to their top wine as the grand vin.

Gran reserva (Sp.)

 

Literally 'great reserve'. Wine that has fulfilled certain (lengthy) ageing requirements and, in theory, comes from a good vintage. In practice, such wines are often too old, and reserva is more likely to appeal to modern palates.

Grape

 

Fruit of the vine, and the raw material for wine production. There are many species of vine, but most wine grapes are from Vitis vinifera. Within this species there are many varieties (see grape variety).

Grapey

 

A wine with smell or flavour reminiscent of fresh grapes or grape juice.

Grassy

 

A wine with the smell of freshly-cut grass. Complimentary when applied to a fresh young white.

Green

 

A lack of ripeness, particular in red wine. Not complimentary.

Grey rot

 

Undesirable form of botrytis.

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